The goal of this project was to build a Software which takes a 3d mesh model and produces a printable geometry for it. The Printer is assumed to print the model slice by slice e.g. with a printing head which plots each slice by extruding plastic. So the model needs to be cut into slices before it can be printed.

Many models are not printable at all without further preprocessing, because of overhanging parts. Most printers need a base plane to print the next slice on top of it and allow only very limited overhang. To deal with that it is necessary to generate additional support structures for the overhanging parts. Only printers using a powder filled printing area do not have this problem because the loose powder acts as support structure.

The inner space of the support structure and the model need not to be filled with material, because a sparse grid structure is often enough to provide stability. For the sake of printing time and material use it should be as sparse as possible. So the question is, how dense it needs to be to carry the weight of the model shell and the grid it self.

This page consists of four sections. The first provides an overview over the tool which were considered as software base. There will also be a discussion why none of them were used. The architecture of the slicer will be presented in the second section. Afterwards the implementation is described in more Detail together with some images which illustrate the process. As last part a short summary and discussion of the results will follow.

Existing Tools

This software is based on a simple raytracer implementation written in C++. The useful features of the existing raytracer where:

  • Import of OFF model files.
  • A simple GUI using OpenGL.
  • Cross platform support by using SDL.
  • Fast mesh intersection based on KD-Trees and already optimized.
There has been a lot of reading and testing whether other software tool or libraries might suit the Problem better. But they were either to complex and tailored to their problem to be useful or they where not mature enough and had serious bugs or no documentation. To provide an overview the following list contains the some interesting tools in this area.

  • Skeinforge is a tool chain which generates G-Code for DYI 3D-Printers like the MakerBot. It is able to generate support structure with a static fill pattern. The code is written mainly in Python. Skeinforge was not chosen as base for this Project, because the big size and complexity of the code base and for the fact that it is grown software.
  • FreeCad is an OpenSource 3d-CAD Software with a good documented Python scripting interface. It seemed to be the most promising tool to build a simple slicer with a proof of concept for adaptive support structure generation. But its mesh library is broken and generates artefacts working on complex meshes.
  • PythonOCC is a wrapper around the OpenCascade CAD library. The OpenCascade CAD library is a very complex an heavyweight piece of software which has an huge interface. The PythonOCC is automatically generated for this interface. The Problems experienced may result either from inconsistencies in that mapping or just wrong usage due to the lack of documentation.
  • libcarve is a mesh library which also follows the paradigm that code is documentation, Which might be OK for a small project. It supports all common mesh operations e.g. intersection, union and difference. Unfortunately the examples provided didn't work the way the where supposed, but the program crashed inside the library.
  • netfabb is a commercial tool, with a free basic version which is useful for mesh sanitizing.

In the end the decision was made to start almost from the scratch, instead of spending more energy for fixing an existing tool.


The goal of this Project was to build a model slicer with the ability of support structure generation in a strait forward way. Mainly to make later modification and extension of the algorithm easier. While efficiency was only second priority. This was not a problem as the code base was already optimized for the raytracer.

The processes the model data in three stages to obtain printable slices from the model. In the first stage the model file imported. The triangle mesh is created in memory and made accessible through a KD-tree to accelerate various kinds of geometric Intersections with the model. As next step the model is pre processed for slicing. To generate support structure only in places where it is needed, triangles facing steep downwards are used to project them onto the base plane. This triangles and their projection are connected to obtain the support volume. In the last stage both the model and its support volume are sliced. The slices are filled with a grid which has adaptive density. The density depends upon the average model height on the current grid line.


The raytracer already had the functions to load a triangle mesh form an OFF file. The triangle normals are used to calculate which triangles face so steep downward that they need support. In order to obtain the support volume, the contour of this triangle set is projected downwards onto the model and the base plane. The volume is bounded by the area inside the support contour and it projection plus the surface connecting both surfaces. As the model the support volume is represented as triangle mesh.

In order to build a slicer on the base of the raytracing code, intersection operations for planes with triangles and Axis Aligned Bounding Boxes (AABB) where added. AABB intersection is important for efficient operations on the KD-tree. This representation is used for the model and the support volume, because it hat logarithmic effort for most operations.

The slice contours handle the model and the support volume in the same way. Each KD-tree is intersected by the slicing plane, which results in a set of edges. This edges form the slice contour. It may consist unconnected components. To generate the grid inside the contours are intersected with a set of planes. The intersection points are connected to the grid structure. Adaptive grid density is achieved by varying the distance between the planes in that set. The strategy here is to make the distance inverse proportional to the height of the model.


The proof of concept implementation of an model slicer provides a base for other approaches and experiments in adaptive support structure generation. It implements a basic support generation method to illustrate the general idea. An UV-resin 3D printer should be able to print a model using the generated slices, even it there are some issues with the support volume overlapping the model a little.

In one talk during the seminar other approaches were presented. (See the sides of this talk.) For example by using finite element methods to calculate the optimal grid structure for printed mechanical parts. This seems to be the best methods to generate adaptive support structure, but it is also very computing expensive and complex.